Among athletes, traumatic lesions affecting ankle and foot are quite frequent; ankle sprains can be associates with fractures of the malleoli, internal and/or external, and even with complex fractures of articular parts of the heel, Achilles tendon injuries; ligament sprains can sometimes be treated surgically, often arthroscopy assisted for better cosmetic results and a quicker and less painful postoperative care.

Degenerative disease caused by arthritis and deformities that can arise in time after load charge of the forefoot represent the modern challenge of podiatry.

Minimally invasive can achieve hallux valgus or fifth superadducted (crossing) finger correction; similarly there are novel techniques for surgical corrections of hammer toe and metatarsal instability, as well as Morton’s neuroma treatment and other various causes of functional painful overloaded foot with chronic pain and functional limitation.